There are a large number of products available which claim to help sports performance in some way. These are known as ergogenic aids. The range of nutritional substances used as ergogenic aids in sport is huge and includes amino acid supplements, ginseng and bee pollen.
For many of these supplements there is little scientific evidence for their effectiveness. Moreover, undesirable side-effects can occur and the implications for long-term health have not been fully tested. Ergogenic aids are not a substitute for a healthy, balanced diet, regular training and adequate rest.
Ergogenic aids fall into the following categories:
  • Mechanical Aids
    • Altitude Training
    • Aqua (water) Training
    • Heart Rate Monitors
    • Computers - analyse VO2 max, technique, test results etc.
    • Video recorders - analyse technique
    • Tyre towing - develop strength
    • Weights - develop strength
    • Hypoxic Tents - altitude training
    • Nasal Strips
    • Parachutes - develop strength
    • Elastic cord (pulling)- develop speed
    • Elastic cord (restraining) - develop strength
    • Downhill running (3° to 5° slope) - develop speed
    • Uphill running (5° to 10° slope) - develop strength
    • Treadmills
    • Weighted vests (5% to 8% of body weight) - develop strength
    • Compression garments - limited research exists on the ergogenic qualities for sports-specific exercise, with available research showing mixed results for exercise involving repeated powerful efforts
    • Sports clothing, footwear and equipment
    • Timing equipment
    • Vibration Training
A. Creatine; Creatine has been of particular interest as an ergogenic aid because of the role that creatine phosphate plays in energy production. During the first few seconds of exercise creatine phosphate is broken down to produce ATP.  This is an extremely fast method of energy production yet the muscle only has very limited creatine stores. The use of creatine supplements attempts to maximise muscle stores and thereby enhance energy production. Results to date are equivocal but are most supportive of a beneficial effect of creatine in events involving bouts of high intensity exercise with only short recovery periods in between, such as football.  There have been no studies on the long-term safety of creatine.
B. Caffeine; There is evidence for a positive effect of caffeine on performance during prolonged endurance events. The ergogenic effect may be related to its stimulant properties, particularly to the effect of caffeine in mobilising fatty acids, which can then be used as a fuel, sparing glycogen stores (see above). A caffeine level in the urine above 12mg/l is not permitted under international doping regulations (a level achieved by taking approximately 500mg caffeine, equivalent to 6-8 cups of coffee, in a single sitting). However, ergogenic effects are produced at lower levels than this.
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including, but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
The following are prohibited:
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited. These include but are not limited to urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour period are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reintroduction of any quantity of whole blood into the circulatory system.
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells.
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2012 Monitoring Program*.
Stimulants include:
a: Non-Specified Stimulants:
Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(d-); p-methylamphetamine; methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
b: Specified Stimulants (examples):  Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
The following are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
Disqualification of the athlete shall be automatic from the event when a violation occurs in connection with an in-competition test, with forfeiture of titles, awards, medals, points, and prize and appearance money. When the athlete is part of a relay team the team shall be automatically disqualified. All competitive results from the date the sample was provided shall be annulled with resulting consequences for the individual and the team (unless fairness requires).
Sanctions against individuals:
a. If prohibited substance is found or prohibited methods established the sanctions:
i. First violation, minimum 2 years;
ii. Second violation: ineligibility for life.
b. For refusal to submit to doping or tampering with doping control:
i. First violation: minimum 2 years ineligibility;
ii. Second violation: ineligibility for life.
c. For 3 missed out-of-competition tests or other whereabouts violations:
i. First violation: one year ineligibility;
ii. Second and subsequent violations: two years ineligibility.
d. For trafficking or administration of prohibited substance or methods:
i. Ineligibility for life.
Elimination, reduction, or replacement of ineligibility period can be reduced to half of the minimum period and if life sanction to 8 years, where there are exceptional circumstances, such as no fault or provided substantial evidence or assistance.
Specified substances include a few medications, acknowledged to be susceptible to unintentional violation because of their general availability in medicinal products and not intended to enhance performance. For specified substances the following sanctions apply:
a. First violation: public warning and disqualification from the event to maximum 1 year;
b. Second violation: 2 years ineligibility;
c. Third violation: ineligibility for life.
Commencement of ineligibility period shall start on the date of the hearing decision, with the period of any provisional suspension credited against the total period.
Status during ineligibility is such that no athlete or support personnel may participate in competition or activity other than education programs whilst ineligible. While ineligible, the athlete is not entitled to any payment by virtue of appearance and/or performance. If he or she receives any payment contrary to this rule the athlete shall not be entitled to return to competition until it has been repaid.
Requirements for return to competition are that after any period of 2 years ineligibility the athlete shall undergo 3 out-of-competition tests at his or her cost with at least 4 months between each test, and immediately prior to the end of the period must undergo testing for the full range of prohibited substances and methods.
If any of these tests reveal an adverse finding, it constitutes a separate violation leading to sanctions as appropriate. If the athlete has complied with these rules he or she shall automatically be re-eligible after the period has ended.
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Karate (WKF)
• Motorcycling (FIM)
• Powerboating (UIM)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS)
• Boules (CMSB)
• Bridge (FMB)
• Darts (WDF)
• Golf (IGF)
• Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
• Powerboating (UIM)
• Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition) 
2.BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1996) Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.
3. DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the Study of Sport. UK: Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
4.McARDLE, W. et al. (2000) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
5.BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.
6.GALLIGAN, F. et al. (2000) Advanced PE for Edexcel. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers
7.BIZLEY, K. (1994) Examining Physical Education. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers


No comments:

Post a Comment

We love your comments