Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the vagina, mouth, nose, ear or anus, or through a break in the skin. Desanguination is a massive blood loss, and the complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume.
1. Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume. There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary.
2. Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume. A patient is often tachycardic (rapid heart beat) with a narrowing of the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The body attempts to compensate with peripheral vasoconstriction. Skin may start to look pale and be cool to the touch. The patient may exhibit slight changes in behavior. Volume resuscitation with crystalloids (Saline solution or Lactated Ringer's solution) is all that is typically required. Blood transfusion is not typically required.
3. Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume. The patient's blood pressure drops, the heart rate increases, peripheral hypoperfusion (shock), such as capillary refill worsens, and the mental status worsens. Fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and blood transfusion are usually necessary.
4. Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume. The limit of the body's compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death
Severe bleeding involves loss of large amount of blood which may occur externally through natural openings, like mouth. A cut on the skin too can lead to bleeding. Internal bleeding occurs due to an injury to blood vessel
2. Blow to the head
3. Injuries, like scalp wounds
4. Tooth Extraction
5. Certain medications
6. Illnesses like
e. A plastic Anemia
h. Peptic Ulcer
i. Platelet Disorder
j. Liver Disease
1. Discharge of blood from a wound
3. Blood in stool/urine
4. Blood coming from other areas, like mouth/ear
1. Wash hands well before administering to patient
2. Wear synthetic gloves
3. Make the victim lie down
4. Slightly elevate the legs
5. If possible keep the affected area elevated
6. Remove any obvious debris/particle
7. Apply direct pressure using clean cloth/bandage
8. Use hand if cloth is not available
9. Apply pressure continuously for at least 20 minutes
10. Do not remove the cloth to check the bleeding
11. Hold the bandage in place using an adhesive tape
12. If bleeding seeps through bandage, do not remove it
13. Add extra bandage on top of the first one
14. Apply direct pressure on the artery if necessary
15. The pressure points for arm--below arm- pit/above elbow
16. For leg--behind knee/near groin
17. Squeeze the artery keeping finger flat
18. Continue applying pressure on the wound
19. Once bleeding stops immobilize the affected part
20. See a doctor
Consult a doctor if;
1. bleeding does not stop
2. bleeding occurs through nose, ears etc
3. Coughing up blood
5. Bruising/deep wounds
6. Abdominal tenderness
Steps To Avoid
1. Do not try to replace a displaced organ
2. Just cover the wound with a clean cloth
3. Do not try to remove an embedded object
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3. "Dictionary Definitions of Exsanguination". Reference.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/exsanguination. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
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