1. ERGOGENIC AIDS
Ergogenic aids are substances, foods, or training methods that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage. There are a large number of products available which claim to help sports performance in some way. These are known as ergogenic aids.
2. CLASSES OF EGOGENIC AIDS
a) Mechanical Aids
b) Pharmacological Aids
c) Physiological Aids
d) Nutritional Aids
e) Psychological Aids
3. DRUGS ATHLETES ABUSE
a) Human growth hormone (HGH): HGH is a widely abused ergogenic aid by body builders. Some body builders take large doses to decrease fat and increase muscle mass. Many adverse effects have been documented
b) Ephedrine: Some athletes use ephedrine-containing supplements to improve their performance, have more energy or decrease their body fat. Unfortunately, athletes who use ephedrine may find that it helps them run farther and faster, but research findings have shown that it also puts them at risk of potentially life-threatening side effects. This is why the National Football League, the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the International Olympic Committee have all taken steps to keep it off the playing fields
c) Creatine: Creatine has been of particular interest as an ergogenic aid because of the role that creatine phosphate plays in energy production. During the first few seconds of exercise creatine phosphate is broken down to produce ATP. This is an extremely fast method of energy production yet the muscle only has very limited creatine stores. The use of creatine supplements attempts to maximise muscle stores and thereby enhance energy production. Results to date are equivocal but are most supportive of a beneficial effect of creatine in events involving bouts of high intensity exercise with only short recovery periods in between, such as football. There have been no studies on the long-term safety of creatine.
d) Caffeine: There is evidence for a positive effect of caffeine on performance during prolonged endurance events. The ergogenic effect may be related to its stimulant properties, particularly to the effect of caffeine in mobilising fatty acids, which can then be used as a fuel, sparing glycogen stores (see above). A caffeine level in the urine above 12mg/l is not permitted under international doping regulations (a level achieved by taking approximately 500mg caffeine, equivalent to 6-8 cups of coffee, in a single sitting). However, ergogenic effects are produced at lower levels than this.
e) Anabolic steroids: These are synthetic hormones used to increase muscle mass and strength. They also produce a “steroid rush”, a state of euphoria and decreased fatigue that allows the athlete to train harder and longer. Many adverse effects have been documented from using these steroids
f) Blood doping: This is another dangerous ergogenic aid. It involves taking blood or blood products such as erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stimulates the bones to make red blood cells, to an athlete to improve endurance and speed. It can also have harmful side effects
4. PENALTIES OF ABUSED DRUGS BY INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION
a. If prohibited substance is found or prohibited methods established the sanctions:
i. First violation, minimum 2 years;
ii. Second violation: ineligibility for life.
b. For refusal to submit to doping or tampering with doping control:
i. First violation: minimum 2 years ineligibility;
ii. Second violation: ineligibility for life.
c. For 3 missed out-of-competition tests or other whereabouts violations:
i. First violation: one year ineligibility;
ii. Second and subsequent violations: two years ineligibility.
d. For trafficking or administration of prohibited substance or methods:
i. Ineligibility for life.
Elimination, reduction, or replacement of ineligibility period can be reduced to half of the minimum period and if life sanction to 8 years, where there are exceptional circumstances, such as no fault or provided substantial evidence or assistance.
Specified substances include a few medications, acknowledged to be susceptible to unintentional violation because of their general availability in medicinal products and not intended to enhance performance. For specified substances the following sanctions apply:
a. First violation: public warning and disqualification from the event to maximum 1 year;
b. Second violation: 2 years ineligibility;
c. Third violation: ineligibility for life.
Commencement of ineligibility period shall start on the date of the hearing decision, with the period of any provisional suspension credited against the total period.
Status during ineligibility is such that no athlete or support personnel may participate in competition or activity other than education programs whilst ineligible. While ineligible, the athlete is not entitled to any payment by virtue of appearance and/or performance. If he or she receives any payment contrary to this rule the athlete shall not be entitled to return to competition until it has been repaid.
Requirements for return to competition are that after any period of 2 years ineligibility the athlete shall undergo 3 out-of-competition tests at his or her cost with at least 4 months between each test, and immediately prior to the end of the period must undergo testing for the full range of prohibited substances and methods.
If any of these tests reveal an adverse finding, it constitutes a separate violation leading to sanctions as appropriate. If the athlete has complied with these rules he or she shall automatically be re-eligible after the period has ended.
5. USAGE OF ERGOGENES IN SPORTS.
1, BETA-BLOCKERS- include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol. Beta-blockers are prohibited In Competition in the following sports.
2, E.P.O- Used to improve swimmers performance
3, CAFFEINE- Used to improve athletic and footballers participation.
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